Data were only available from middle and high-income countries with male-predominant, concentrated epidemics. As will be shown, one of our key findings was that sex with nontransgender men was the strongest predictor of unsafe sex. Faced with a lack of access to appropriate care, many transgender women utilize hormones without medical supervision [ 26 ]. However, MtF and FtM persons represent distinct groups, arriving at increased risk of unsafe sex through different trajectories of identity and experience, including types of gender identity, age, and use of hormones and gender related surgery. Love, gender and HIV risk among male-to-female transgender persons. HIV sexual risk behavior by men who use the internet to seek sex with men:
Transgender people are a largely hidden sexual minority, composed of a diverse group of individuals whose gender identity, expression, or behavior cross societal gender norms associated with sex at birth Bockting,
Global information and education on HIV and AIDS
Our award-winning series of booklets, with each title providing a comprehensive overview of one aspect of living with HIV. Is there a clear way for genderqueer individuals to participate? Sexuality before and after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively. Transgender individuals around the world face high levels of stigma and discrimination, lack of social and legal recognition of their affirmed gender, and exclusion from employment and educational opportunities [ 71011 ].
Much of current HIV prevention messaging does not take into account the reality of trans bodies and sexual experiences. Transgender persons having sex with nontransgender men: HIV-related stigma creates barriers to getting tested for many transgender people. Injustice at Every Turn: A strengths-based approach is especially important for transgender women, given the high levels of stigma and marginalization the community often faces.